See also note below on Pioneer naming in Pioneer 1 entry below.
Fly up to 596 km and 2,414 km away. Upper stage malfunctions of the launch vehicles used resulted in neither satellite reaching orbit. Molniya orbiting satellites are more commonly used for telephone and TV services over Russia because of their high latitude capabilities. The satellite provided further evidence of the radiation belts and also showed that atmospheric density was much greater than expected at its apogee of 2,736 kilometers.
Key among them was a mission to Mars. Prior to launch, there was reportedly some doubt about the functioning capabilities of the Tral-D data recorder but Korolev, under pressure from Khrushchev to launch the satellite in time to show support for the Italian Communist Party in the Italian elections, opted to launch without verifying the operation of the device in question.
Control lost after 57 seconds, at 6 km altitude; control system malfunction. All Soviet failures were unknown at the time; they were revealed only in the 1980s and 1990s.
Unfortunately, the spacecraft was destroyed by an explosion of the the Thor's first stage 77 seconds after launch at 16 kilometres altitude, and felt 16 km downrange into the Atlantic. Explorer 2. The first communication satellite was launched on December 18, 1958. One of these is geostationary. Rotational spin vibrations of the cluster caused the payload to drop off at 112 seconds and structural failure after 149 seconds.
The satellite lasted 12 years in orbit, much more than the first two Sputniks. Provided data on radiation belts, etc.
However, this remains very doubtful, even as there were some signals picked up by ground stations - those were probably not from the satellite.
The objective of the Vanguard SLV-1 and SLV-2 satellites was to put into orbit a fully instrumented, 50-cm Lyman-alpha satellite to study Solar radiation and to make certain space environment measurements.
That was a lot in that period. Vanguard SLV-3 carried a 33-kg 10 kg net satellite designed to measure cloud-cover distribution over the daylight portion of its orbit.
It was conically-shaped and was 3. One first stage motor failed to ignite, causing structural failure. Siddiqi, SP-2002-4524 , p.
It is believed that exhaustion of the power batteries caused these failures. It also was used to obtain geodetic measurements through orbit analysis. Operating on solar-powered batteries, it was still transmitting after 3 years in orbit.
But unknown at the time. The payload consisted of a redundant pair of UHF communication packages attached to the Atlas launcher's main stage.